Tag Archives: Oracle

ZDLRA, Real-Time Redo

Real-time redo transport is the feature that allows you to reduce to zero the RPO (Recovery Point Objective) for your database. Check how to configure real-time redo, the steps, parameters, and other details that need to be modified to enable it.

The idea behind real-time redo transport it is easy, basically the ZDLRA it is a remote destination for your redo log buffers/archivelogs of your database. It is really, really, similar to what occurs for data guard configurations (but here you don’t need to set all datafiles as an example). It is not the same too because ZDLRA can detect if the database stops/crash and will generate the archivelog (at ZDLRA side) with all the received redo and this can be used to restore to, at least zero/sub-seconds, of data loss.

Using real-time redo it is the only way to reach RPO zero. With other features of ZDLRA, you can have a better backup window time (but just that) using incremental backups. Just using real-time redo you reach zero RPO and this impacts directly how to configure for MAA compliance. There are a lot of options and level of protection for MAA that you can check at “Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) – On-Premises HA Reference Architectures 2019”, “Maximum Availability Architecture Best Practices for Oracle Cloud”, “Oracle MAA Reference Architectures”, “Maximum Availability Architecture – Best Practices for Oracle Database 19c”.

This post starts from one environment that you already enrolled in the database at ZDLRA. I already wrote about how to do that, you can check here in my previous post. This is the first post about real-time redo, here you will see how to configure and verify it is working.

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ZDLRA Internals, Virtual Full Backup

Virtual Full Backup probably is the most know feature of Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance (ZDLRA) and you can check here how it works. In this post I will show how virtual full backup works internally and integrate INDEX_BACKUP task with tables like PLANS, PLAN_DETAILS, CHUNKS, and BLOCKS.

About the internal tables, you can check my previous post “ZDLRA Internals, Tables and Storage” where I explained details about that. To understand the INDEX_BACKUP task, check my post “ZDLRA Internals, INDEX_BACKUP task in details”. But if you know nothing and want to start reading about ZDLRA, you can check my post “Understanding ZDLRA” and check all the features and details.

The base for this article is virtual full backup and incremental forever strategy. I explained both at “ZDLRA, Virtual Full Backup and Incremental Forever” and I included hot it’s work integrated with rman backup. Basically, after an initial backup level 0, you execute just level 1 backups and ZDLRA generated a virtual backup level 0. But here, in this post, I will show you how it works in some internal details.

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Exadata X8M

Exadata X8M model it was released in the Oracle Open World 2019 and the new feature, “M”, was aimed to reduce the latency and increase the IOPS. The Exadata X8M uses the Remote Direct Memory (RDMA) to allow database access the storage server memory directly. And the memory, in this case, it is special, X8M uses Intel Optane DC Persistent Memory modules (DIMM/NVDIMM – Non Volatile DIMM – to provide PMEM – Persistent Memory) attached directly at storage server and these can be accessed directly from the database using RDMA trough RoCE network. Let’s check the details to see what it is.

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ZDLRA, 19.2

Last week, at 27/August/2019, ZDLRA team released the new major version 19.2 (19.2.1.1.1) of Recovery Appliance Software. As always, some new features like supported databases, but some downsides too.

The main features for the software side:

  • Support for 19c databases.
  • Improved way to apply the patch (the rpm installation is not anymore manual).
  • Improved way to rollback the patch in some cases.

Other changes that deserve the hint:

  • Runs over 19.4 version of GRID and RDBMS.
  • Runs over Exadata System Software 19.2.3.0.0 (this means OEL 7) for DB and Storage.
  • Updated version for TFA, Exachk, and OEDA; all 19.x version.

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ZDLRA Internals, INDEX_BACKUP task in details

For ZDLRA, the task type INDEX_BACKUP it is important (if it is not the most) because it is responsible to create the virtual full backup. This task runs for every backup that you ingest at ZDLRA and here, I will show with more details what occurs at ZDLRA: internals steps, phases, and tables involved.

I recommend that you check my previous post about ZDLRA: ZDLRA Internals, Tables and Storage, ZDLRA, Virtual Full Backup and Incremental Forever, and Understanding ZDLRA. They provide a good base to understand some aspects of ZDLRA architecture and features.

Backup

As you saw in my previous post, ZDLRA opens every backup that you sent and read every block of it to generate one new virtual full backup. And this backup is validated block a block (physically and logically) against corruption. It differs from a snapshot because it is content-aware (in this case it is proprietary Oracle datafile blocks inside another proprietary Oracle rman block) and Oracle it is the only that can do this guaranteeing that result is valid.

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ZDLRA Internals, Tables and Storage

ZDLRA tables are owned by rasys user and are one extension of rman recovery catalog views. The internal tables that were added are just a few, but are important to understand how tasks works (mainly INDEX_BACKUP). In this post, I will show tables like plans, plans_details, blocks, and chunks. And besides that, show a little glimpse about how the files are stored.

Extra tables

If you check, officially, the rman recovery catalog already includes some columns from ZDLRA, the column VB_KEY identify the virtual backup key inside ZDLRA. It exists in RC_BACKUP_PIECE as an example. The extra tables added are linked with SBT tasks (clone to tape or cloud), replication (to other ZDLRA), storage (chunks), vbdf and plans (virtual full backup).

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ZDLRA, Virtual Full Backup and Incremental Forever

One of the most knows features of ZDLRA is the virtual full backup, basically incremental forever strategy. But what this means in real life? In this post, I will show some details about that and how interesting they are, check what it is Virtual Full Backup and Incremental Forever strategy for ZDLRA.

This post is based on my previous one where I showed all the steps to configure the VPC and enroll database at ZDLRA. 

Virtual Full Backup

A virtual full backup appears as an incremental level 0 backup in the recovery catalog. From the user’s perspective, a virtual full backup is indistinguishable from a non-virtual full backup. Using virtual backups, Recovery Appliance provides the protection of frequent level 0 backups with only the cost of frequent level 1 backups.

This definition (and image) are in the Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance Administrator’s Guide and I think that represents the essence of the virtual full backup. ZDLRA receive the incremental level 1 backup, index it, and generate a level 0 to you that it is indistinguishable from a normal backup level 0.

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How to use ZDLRA and enroll a database

ZDLRA it is an Oracle dedicate appliance specialized to manage your backups, but more than that, provide you zero data loss. I already made an introduction about ZDLRA in my previous post and here I will show how to use and enrolling protected database at ZDLRA: enroll database, create policies and access with rman. Understand how to use ZDLRA, at least the starting point.

Every project starts with scope definition, steps, and requirements. It is not different for ZDLRA project, it is a big appliance, expensive, and integrate a lot of things in just one place: backups, archivelogs, redo, replication, and RPO. The requirements vary from project to project, I will not discuss that here. But will show you the tech part about the usage.

The post has two divisions, the first it is the technical part. You can check how to do that. The second contains the information/documentation part, where I will show more details about the steps.

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Understanding ZDLRA

Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance (ZDLRA) deliver to you the capacity to improve the reliability of your environment in more than one way. You can improve the RPO (Recovery Point Objective) for your databases until you reach zero, zero data loss. And besides that, adding a lot of new cool features (virtual backups, real-time redo, tape and cloud, DG/MAA integration) on the way how you do that your backups (incremental forever), and backup strategy. And again, besides that, improve the MAA at the highest level that you can hit.

But this is just marketing, right? No, really, works pretty well! My history with ZDLRA  starts with Oracle Open World 2014 when they released the ZDLRA and I watched the session/presentation. At that moment I figure out how good the solution was. In that moment, hit exactly the problem that I was suffering for databases: deduplication (bad dedup). One year later, in 2015 at OOW I made the presentation for a big project that I coordinate (from definition implementation, and usage)  with 2 Sites + 2 ZDLRA + N Exadata’s + Zero RPO and RTO + DG + Replication. And at the end of 2017 moved to a new continent, but still involved with MAA and ZDLRA until today.

This post is just a little start point about ZDLRA, I will do a quick review about some key points but will write about each one (with examples) in several other dedicates posts. I will not cover the bureaucratic steps to build the project like that, POC, scope definition, key turn points, and budget. I will talk technically about ZDLRA.

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INDEX_BACKUP task for ZDLRA, Check percentage done

Quick post how to check and identify done for INDEX_BACKUP task in ZDLRA. In one simple way, just to contextualize, INDEX_BACKUP is one task for ZDLRA that (after you input the backup of datafile) generate an index of the blocks and create the virtual backup for you.

Here I will start a new series about ZDLRA with some hints based on my usage experience (practically since the release in 2014). The post from today is just little scratch about ZDLRA internals, I will extend this post in others (and future posts), stay tuned.

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